## Lesson 5: Applying Construction to Animals

##### 5:53 PM, Sunday April 3rd 2022

Hey!

Just finished Lesson 5 homework, oh boy that was a lot.

Since i tend to draw small i decided to draw only one animal/page this time, also I didn't realized the non-hooved animals got so similar until i was taking the pics for the submission.

Any feedback is appreciated!

1 users agree
##### 7:14 PM, Saturday April 9th 2022 edited at 7:15 PM, Apr 9th 2022

Hello I’ll be handling the critique for your lesson 5 homework.

Organic Intersections

-Starting with the organic Intersections these are turning out well, and they wrap around each other in a believable way. There are only a couple of issues to point out, first, you're not pushing the cast shadows far enough, remember that these shadows act as contour curves to describe how these forms sit in space, so push them further. Lastly, it seems that you were drawing through them in your first page, but you didn't do this on the second page, this is just an exercise in spatial reasoning so it is important to always draw through your forms.

Animals

-The first thing I want to call out is that you tend to draw your initial construction lines very faintly and you add a lot of line weight to those that you want to commit to, this may not seem like a big deal at first but it reinforces the mindset that we are just working with a set of lines rather than actual forms that exist in 3D space.

What we should when we want to change something is to add new 3D forms to the preceding structure and establishing how these forms relate to one another We can do so by defining the intersection between them, like on lesson 2 form intersections or by wrapping the silhouette around the existing forms as shown here.

I know you know of this method already, but you tend to jump a lot between adding forms and changing the silhouette of your animals. A good example is this animal where you cut into the silhouette of your forms, (the part where you used hatching).

-You also want to be confident in your own belief that the forms you are working with are 3D and have their own volume, so use contour lines on your initial masses (cranium, ribcage and pelvis), keep in mind that contour lines are a good way to describe how a forms exists in 3D space, but they can also work against us by flattening our drawing, so use them very sparingly.

-Another important thing to call out is that you are using flat shapes for the legs, given that the lesson material is quite outdated you may have missed this point. Remember that you have to use the sausage method taught in lesson 4, when using this method it is important to keep in mind that we are not capturing the shape of the legs precisely as they are, instead we are setting up a basic structure that captures both the flow and solidity if these limbs, once that structure is in place we can start to add additional forms to better capture the actual shape of the legs, This process is exemplified in this dog's leg demos and this ant leg demo.

-Now I want to address head construction, I can see that you are aware of the different planes present in the cranium, and you are using pentagonal shapes for your eye sockets which is correct. But you tend to draw them very small, it is important to give them as much room as possible so that we can have a wedge to fit the muzzle into and a flat edge for the eyebrows and the forehead. The eyeballs should also be big, so as to wrap the eyelids around them much more easily, as shown (here)[https://imgur.com/TWFxXPZ).

Once that is done we should add the facial features following the existing planes, this process is exemplified in this rhino head demo and this camel head demo

-The last point I want to address is proportions, I don't want to put too much emphasis into it because it is not as important as the points I have already raised. This is a common issue that can be improved by spending more time observing carefully our reference image, the ribcage should occupy roughly ½ of the torso and the ribcage should be ¼ of the torso.

Okay, you still have plenty of things to keep working on so I want you to do some additional work to tie up those loose ends.

Next Steps:

-4 more pages of animals of your own choice (no texture)

edited at 7:15 PM, Apr 9th 2022
##### 11:00 PM, Sunday April 17th 2022

Helloo!

I'm having a bit of trouble with these exercises, but hopefully i improved a bit.

Sorry about taking some time to reply, i don't have much free time.

Also thank you for your critique!

##### 9:11 PM, Monday April 18th 2022

Okay, so there are still a number of things to be improved, the constructions themselves are good as a whole. But let's go through each point to see how you did

-You have handled them quite well, and they wrap around the existing structure in a believable way, but you only use them very sparingly, and on localized areas. It also seems that you seem to be focusing mostly on masses that affect the silhouette. These quadrupedal animals tend to have large muscles, so keep looking for opportunities to add more masses, also try to look for masses that don't directly affect the silhouette, like missing pieces of a puzzle.

Another minor thing is that you don't need to add contour lines to these masses, as they don't tend to add very useful information when you have already designed the silhouette to wrap around the existing structure.

Leg Construction

You did not follow the advice I gave you when it comes to the legs, you have to build cabins of simple sausages that overlap a good deal so that you can draw the intersection between them.

Each sausage should have a consistent width, with no pinching throughout their length. The sausage method is not capturing the shape of the legs precisely as they are, take a look at this diagram which explains how to construct legs correctly.

It's not uncommon for students to be aware of the sausage method as introduced in lesson 4, but to decide that the legs they're looking at don't actually seem to look like a chain of sausages, so they use some other strategy.

Here you are doing pretty well, the only issue is that your eye sockets and eyeballs are not as big as they could be, but you are certainly aware of the different existing planes when it comes to constructing your muzzles, keep looking for ways to push this constructional exercises further as I showed you in the demos above.

Your work is turning out okay l, but you still have some things to keep working on. For now I'll go ahead and mark this lesson as complete

Next Steps:

250 Cylinder Challenge

This community member feels the lesson should be marked as complete. In order for the student to receive their completion badge, this critique will need 2 agreements from other members of the community.
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