There is always something special about seeing the students whom I've seen struggle so much that they've become memorable for it come to the finish line. It's one thing to have a student who appears to have shown up with a fair bit of prior experience, or at least one who was able to understand the concepts when they were introduced well enough not to make too much of a fuss throughout the process, but the ones that had those visible periods of difficulty truly evoke a sense of accomplishment and impact. Looking over your work for this lesson, I couldn't help but exclaim (at least a little vainly) to Scylla who'd been making pancakes at the time, "hey look! I taught someone how to draw."

Long story short, I'm very pleased with your progress, and I'm very proud of all you've achieved. Here you're demonstrating a very well developed grasp of how to manipulate form within 3D space to create complex objects. You've shown that you understand how everything down to many of the smallest details are still composed of forms, and you've exhibited a level of comfort and control with what you choose to include and what you leave out, or to what extent you make it a priority.

There are a few things I'll address that should help you keep on the right track, and there certainly is ample room for further growth, but you're doing a great job as it is.

Starting with your form intersections, you're mostly doing a good job with these, but there a couple little points I wanted to make clearer. Here's some redlining of your first page.

  • I noticed that towards the middle where you have a box intersecting with the lower-left sphere, you drew more of a wavy intersection line. Given that the sphere itself is a rounded surface ad the box is a flat surface, we can think of it as though we're multiplying a curve C with a flat line |. The flat line functions mathematically as the number 1 would - multiplying something else by it doesn't change the value, resulting in another basic C curve running along the surface of the box.

  • Conversely if you look at where the cylinder towards the center intersects with the large upper sphere, we have two C curves being multiplied together, which in turn results in more of an S wave. The specifics of the wave and how it runs along the surfaces comes down to actually studying how the surfaces are interacting - these analogies of multiplication just help us to remember the overall nature of the result.

  • I'm very pleased with how you're mindfully breaking the flow of your intersection lines when we hit a corner - for example with the pyramid intersecting with the lower-left sphere, you've got three different C curves, each broken up along each individual face of the pyramid. I did exaggerate these a little further to better wrap along the surface of the sphere, but this was done well.

  • When constructing cylinders in your form intersections, definitely do so around a central minor axis.

  • I think your choice of how to actually communicate the intersections ended up being kind of visually confusing, and I think a more standard approach as depicted towards the bottom right would have been clearer. That is, first and foremost focusing on the use of line weight to clarify overlaps. For example, when you hit a T junction where all three line segments meeting together are of the same line weight, we could interpret that as being a two straight lines meeting, or a short stubby line hitting an L joint. This can be clarified by giving each line their own weight throughout the intersection (before tapering back down). Secondly, we can still use hatching lines on our front-faces to help provide a visual cue to better understand the forms that we've drawn through. Additionally, I wouldn't ever use hatching lines like this on a rounded surface, as they will almost always come out not quite curving enough, and will flatten that surface out.

Overall, you're demonstrating a strong grasp of how these forms relate to one another in 3D space - so just consider these as a few little tweaks and adjustment to your approach.

While you did have a bit to say about your boxes in cylinders, I'm not at all concerned about these, and I feel that you're generally doing a good job at maintaining the square proportions of your box faces, and your convergences are definitely improving. What I care about most is that to the naked eye, your ellipses can pass for circles. Yours absolutely can. Will they improve with further practice and general drawing? Absolutely. So there's nothing to really worry about here.

Flipping through your actual vehicle constructions, I think there are a number of things that come up frequently, but by and large you're still really knocking these out of the park, so most of these issues actually end up being pretty minor, and in many cases, cosmetic:

  • I can see that in a number of small places throughout your drawings, you use hatching lines. While this is perfectly fine when dealing with basic boxes and other abstract or genericized representations of form, when it comes to our actual drawings - especially given the tools we're using (ink with stark black lines) - hatching lines is something we generally avoid. This was actually introduced as a restriction back in lesson 2, when we talked about the importance of not applying form shading, but more recently with the updated material for that section, it was presented a little more clearly. Give the section a read and the video a watch. Now what I'd sooner have you do is focus on the use of cast shadows alone, and simply leave the surfaces to which you applied hatching alone. Your drawings would have come out more cleanly, and the actual conveyance of form would have been clearer. In essence, the issue is that in small part you were treating your pen as though it was a pencil. It's important to always acknowledge that every tool has its strengths and weaknesses, and techniques are often purposely paired off with particular tools for a reason.

  • I can see that you ended up not using an ellipse guide for these lessons. You are certainly allowed to choose that route, though it is not encouraged - largely because worrying about freehanding all our ellipses correctly can distract us from the other demanding tasks before us. I'm assuming you chose not to go with an ellipse guide because the affordable options generally have size limitations. When drawing vehicles, in most cases the size limitations are acceptable (since we're mostly using them for wheels), though I suppose when constructing your unit box grids you'd have had to start out with a much smaller unit. Either way, choosing to freehand them didn't seem to actually do that much harm. You were still very mindful with your constructions, and most of your ellipses came out pretty nicely, many leading me to question whether or not you'd actually used an ellipse template after all.

  • Now, towards the end of your album you do comment upon this - but I'll mention it anyway. You've drawn a lot of these to be very small on the page. I'm sure we've addressed this before, but this really does become a hindrance, limiting the amount of room the brain has to think through spatial problems. As you encountered yourself, it also leaves very little room to approach smaller details (or even larger details). It's definitely a handicap that really isn't necessary. Now, not everything was drawn small, and many of your major drawings were given a fair bit of space. Some however, like the mosquito fighter, the locomotive and the lunar excursion module would certainly have benefited from having been drawn larger.

Despite these issues, I still think you did a fantastic job, and you've demonstrated an inordinate amount of growth over the last two years. As I mentioned before, you should be proud of what you've done here, and I am pleased to say that you've completed the entirety of the course. Congratulations.

You can choose to tackle the 100 chest challenge if you like, but whether or not you do, you've earned your completion status.